Text only
(lower resolution version for viewing; 30 MB)

(for individual chapters see below)

Text only
(higher resolution version for printing; 59 MB)

Plates only
(20 MB)

Facsimile of original publication
(high resolution text and plates; 79 MB)

Version with searchable text
(omits figures and plates; 169 MB)


available separately:

Chapter 1: Introduction (pages 1-35): purpose of this study - geography and environment - outline of Maya civilization and history - sources of hieroglyphic texts - art and epochs of hieroglyphic writing - search and research - books of Chilam Balam - purpose of this study (3.1 MB)

Chapter 2: Principles of Maya Glyphic Writing (pages 36-65): glyph formation - Maya graphology - Maya counting - numerical classifiers - glyph styles - regional glyphs - regional methods of fixing dates - the burden of time - Maya poetry (2.6 MB)

Chapter 3: The Cycle of 260 Days (pages 66-103: glyphs for days - day names - meanings of day names - influences of day names - influences of day numbers - ritualism of days - divinity of days - names of the 260-day cycle and of its divisions - range of 260-day cycle - origin of 260-day cycle - ritualistic and divinitory divisions of the sacred almanac - starting point of 260-day cycle - summary (3.2 MB)

Chapter 4: The Year of 365 Days (pages 104-128): names of the months - patrons of the months - meanings of names or glyphs of months - numbering of days of months - seating of months - the last day of the month - handling of leap years - names of the year and its divisions - the cycle of fifty-two years - position of month glyph - the year bearers - summary (2.2 MB)

Chapter 5: Methods of Recording Numbers (pages 129-140): bars and dots - head variants: one to nineteen - symbolic variants: one to nineteen - completion (or zero??) - glyph for twenty - glyph for half - suppression of numbers - positional notation - summary (1 MB)

Chapter 6: The Long Count (pages 141-156): the tun as basis of Maya calculations - glyphs and names of periods - starting points of the Long Count - inauguration of the Long Count - Initial Series introductory glyph - Initial Series of Dresden Codex - position and function of the Initial Series - dedicatory dates of monuments - the grandeur of the Initial Series (1.3 MB)

Chapter 7: Distance Numbers (pages 157-180): function of distance numbers - arrangement of periods in distance numbers - suppression of kin glyph - suppression of other period glyphs - distance number postfix - distance number introductory glyph - anterior and posterior date indicators - indicators of tun and other dates - "forward to sunrise" glyph - use of lunar glyph in distance numbers - forms for kin used in distance numbers - occurences of kin variants in lunar series - symbolism of kin variants used in distance numbers - count by sunrises, nights, or sunsets - literary curiosities - summary (2 MB)

Chapter 8: Period Endings, Anniversaries, and Katun Counts (pages 181-207): period endings - influence of the katuns on daily life - count by ending or beginning days - records of baktun and katun endings - hand symbols for completion - "count" group of prefixes - completion of haab - tun or haab - glyphs for fifth haab and five haab lacking - glyph for half-period - various ending glyphs - katun and tun anniversaries - the haab variant - a Yucatecan method of recording dates - "Ben-Ich" katun - the guest katun - patrons of katuns - determinants - summary (2.2 MB)

Chapter 9: Ritualistic and Astronomical Cycles (pages 208-229): lords of the nights [Glyph G] - Glyph F - the 819-day cycle - the planet Venus - supposed cycles of other planets - summary (1.8 MB)

Chapter 10: The Moon (pages 230-246): the moon goddess in myth and legend - functions of the moon goddess - glyphs of the moon goddess - the eclipse and lunar table of Codex Dresden - the Maya and the astronomical new moon - lunar series on the monuments - groupings of moons - the introduction of the uniform system - summary (1.4 MB)

Chapter 11: Soulless Mechanisms and Magical Formulae (pages 247-262): short cuts in computations - wheels - the footsteps of the year - world directions and colors - tables and multiples of thirteen - the computing year - six times nine multiplication table - Initial Series associated with the tables - planetary tables? - farmers' almanacs? - general observations (1.3 MB)

Chapter 12: Aids to Decipherment (pages 263-288): paths to the Scryne - glyphs which accompany divinatory almanacs - glyphic groups - a pair of affixes - te (3) affix - the il affix - the arithmetical approach (2.2 MB)

Chapter 13: Glances Backward and a Look Ahead (pages 289-296): addendum (.75 MB)

Appendix I: Divinatory Almanacs in the Books of Chilam Balam (pages 297-302) (.5 MB)

Appendix II: The Correlation Question (pages 303-310): (.7 MB)

Appendix III: Whorf's Attempts to Decipher the Maya Hieroglyphs (pages 311-312): (.3 MB)

Appendix IV: Maya Calculations Far into the Past and into the Future (pages 314-316): (.3 MB)

Appendix V: Determinants (pages 317-320): (.3 MB)

Hieroglyphic Glossary and Index: (.9 MB)

References: (1 MB)

General Index: (.7 MB)


FIGURE 1: MAP OF THE MAYA AREA

FIGURE 2: GLYPH FORMATIONS

FIGURE 3: CLAUSES

FIGURE 4: CLAUSES AND VARIABLE AFFIXES

FIGURE 5: INTERCHANGEABILITY OF ELEMENTS OF THE COUNT GROUP OF AFFIXES

FIGURE 6: DAY SIGNS: IMIX TO KAN (Imix, Ik, Akbal, Kan)

FIGURE 7: DAY SIGNS: CHICCHAN TO LAMAT (Chicchan, Cimi, Manik, Lamat)

FIGURE 8: DAY SIGNS: MULUC TO EB (Muluc, Oc, Chuen, Eb)

FIGURE 9: DAY SIGNS: BEN TO CIB (Ben, Ix, Men, Cib)

FIGURE 10: DAY SIGNS: CABAN TO AHAU (Caban, Etz'nab, Cauac, Ahau)

FIGURE 11: AHAU (CONTINUED) AND SUNDRY GLYPHS

FIGURE 12: DERIVATIONS OF DAY SIGNS: IMIX TO AKBAL. AFFIXES

FIGURE 13: DERIVATIONS OF DAY SIGNS: KAN TO MANIK

FIGURE 14: DERIVATIONS OF DAY SIGNS: LAMAT TO CABAN

FIGURE 15: DERIVATIONS OF DAY SIGNS: ETZ'NAB TO AHAU

FIGURE 16: MONTH SIGNS: POP TO XUL (Pop, Uo, Zip, Zotz', Zec, Xul)

FIGURE 17: MONTH SIGNS: YAXKIN TO CEH (Yaxkin, Mol, Ch'en, Yax, Zac, Ceh)

FIGURE 18: MONTH SIGNS: MAC TO KAYAB (Mac, Kankin, Muan, Pax, Kayab)

FIGURE 19: MONTH SIGNS: CUMKU AND UAYEB, ENDS OF MONTHS, AND SEATINGS OF MONTHS AND YEARS

FIGURE 20: SYMBOL FOR BLACK AND THE ASSOCIATIONS OF THE MOAN BIRD AND SPIRAL WITH WATER

FIGURE 21: OLD EARTH GOD AND OTHER DEITIES ASSOCIATED WITH THE CONCH SHELL

FIGURE 22: INITIAL SERIES INTRODUCTORY GLYPHS: VARIABLE ELEMENTS POP TO YAX

FIGURE 23: INITIAL SERIES INTRODUCTORY GLYPHS: VARIABLE ELEMENTS ZAC TO CUMKU AND EXAMPLES OF COMPLETE GLYPHS

FIGURE 24: HEADS FOR NUMBERS 1 THROUGH 10

FIGURE 25: HEADS FOR NUMBERS 11 THROUGH 19 AND FOR COMPLETION, NUMERICAL HEADS IN CODEX DRESDEN, AND SYMBOLS FOR NUMBERS

FIGURE 26: GEOMETRIC (OR SYMBOLIC) FORMS OF PERIOD GLYPHS

FIGURE 27: HEAD (PERSONIFIED) FORMS OF PERIOD GLYPHS

FIGURE 28: FULL-FIGURE GLYPHS OF BAKTUN. KATUN, AND TUN, AND COEFFICIENTS

FIGURE 29: FULL-FIGURE GLYPHS OF UINAL, KIN, AND LUNAR SERIES, AND COEFFICIENTS

FIGURE 30: SPECIALIZED GLYPHS IN DISTANCE NUMBERS

FIGURE 31: SPECIALIZED GLYPHS FOR KIN AND SKY SYMBOLS

FIGURE 32: PERIOD ENDING SIGNS

FIGURE 33: GLYPHS ASSOCIATED WITH PERIOD ENDINGS AND ANNIVERSARIES

FIGURE 34: GLYPHS G AND F OF THE LUNAR SERIES

FIGURE 35: 819-DAY COUNT AND MONTH POSITION SHIFT

FIGURE 36: LUNAR SERIES: GLYPH C COEFFICIENTS ABSENT OR 2 TO 4

FIGURE 37: LUNAR SERIES: GLYPH C COEFFICIENTS 5 AND 6

FIGURE 38: DATES AT CHICHEN ITZA AND NEIGHBORING SITES

FIGURE 39: DATES AT CHICHEN ITZA AND NEIGHBORING SITES (CONTINUED)

FIGURE 40: IMIX WITH VARYING AFFIXES AND IN COMPOUND GLYPHS

FIGURE 41: DIRECTIONAL AND COLOR GLYPHS

FIGURE 42: GLYPHS OF DEITIES, PERIODS, AND ACTION IN CODICES

FIGURE 43: AFFIXES OF WATER GROUP AND GLYPHS FROM CODICES

FIGURE 44: KAN CROSS, YAX, AND COMPLETION SIGNS ASSOCIATED WITH SNAKES AND WATER (?)

FIGURE 45: KAN CROSS, COMPLETION, YAX, BONE, AND JADE SYMBOLS

FIGURE 46: DIVINATORY TEXTS, CLAUSES, AND MULTIPLICATION TABLE

FIGURE 47: EARLY INSCRIPTIONS

FIGURE 48: PART OF THE HIEROGLYPHSC STAIRWAY, NARANJO

FIGURE 49: TEXTS FROM THE USUMACINTA BASIN

FIGURE 50: TEXTS OF VARIOUS PERIODS

FIGURE 51: TEXTS AT YAXCHILAN, COPAN, AND PALENQUE

FIGURE 52: TEXTS AT TIKAL AND COPAN

FIGURE 53: TEXTS AT PALENQUE, QUIRIGUA, AND XCALUMKIN

FIGURE 54: TEXTS AT COPAN AND BONAMPAK

FIGURE 55: TEXTS AT PALENQUE AND QUIRIGUA

FIGURE 56: TEXTS FROM CHIAPAS AND CAMPECHE

FIGURE 57: TEXTS AT PIEDRAS NEGRAS AND PALENQUE

FIGURE 58: PIEDRAS NEGRAS, THRONE I: TEXT ON TOP, FRONT, AND LEGS OF SCREEN

FIGURE 59: TEXTS AT OXLAHUNTUN AND PIEDRAS NEGRAS

FIGURE 60: FULL-FIGURE GLYPHS, COPAN, D

FIGURE 61: TWO DIVINATORY ALMANACS, CODEX DRESDEN

FIGURE 62: THREE DIVINATORY ALMANACS, CODEX DRESDEN

FIGURE 63: FIVE DIVINATORY ALMANACS, CODEX DRESDEN

FIGURE 64: CEREMONIES FOR NEW YEAR AND AN ALMANAC AND TABLES